Read Virgin Soil by Ivan Turgenev Constance Garnett Online


Turgenev was the most liberal-spirited and unqualifiedly humane of all the great nineteenth-century Russian novelists, and in Virgin Soil, his biggest and most ambitious work, he sought to balance his deep affection for his country and his people with his growing apprehensions about what their future held in store. At the heart of the book is the story of a young man and aTurgenev was the most liberal-spirited and unqualifiedly humane of all the great nineteenth-century Russian novelists, and in Virgin Soil, his biggest and most ambitious work, he sought to balance his deep affection for his country and his people with his growing apprehensions about what their future held in store. At the heart of the book is the story of a young man and a young woman, torn between love and politics, who struggle to make headway against the complacency of the powerful, the inarticulate misery of the powerless, and the stifling conventions of provincial life. This rich and complex book, at once a love story, a devastating, and bitterly funny social satire, and, perhaps most movingly of all, a heartfelt celebration of the immense beauty of the Russian countryside, is a tragic masterpiece in which one of the world's finest novelists confronts the enduring question of the place of happiness in a political world....

Title : Virgin Soil
Author :
Rating :
ISBN : 9780940322455
Format Type : Paperback
Number of Pages : 355 Pages
Status : Available For Download
Last checked : 21 Minutes ago!

Virgin Soil Reviews

  • Ahmad Sharabiani
    2019-05-25 05:15

    842. новь = Virgin Soil, Ivan Turgenevخاک بکر - ایوان‌سرگی‌یویچ تورگنیف (امیرکبیر) ادبیات روسیهرا خواندم، انگار میکردم اثر را به زبان نگارنده خوانده ام، پز میدادم که به زبان اصلی کتاب را خوانده ام، سپس ترجمه آقای عبدالرحمان رزندی را که همان نسخه را ترجمه کرده بودند خواندم، امیرکبیر 1349، در 19 و 330 صهنوز یادم مرا فراموش نکرده که نخست، ترجمه ی انگلیسی کتاب را با عنوان Virgin soil, 1946ا. شربیانی

  • Manuel Alfonseca
    2019-06-19 03:19

    This book, dated 1877, was Ivan Turgenev's answer to Dostoievsky's The possessed (also titled The demons), dated 1872. His revolutionaries, however, are just naive incompetent idealists (all except Solomin, who actually never defines himself), who act prematurely until finally they lose faith in themselves and the cause.Personally I prefer Dostoievsky's version, because it seems to me much closer to what actually were the real revolutionaries in the twentieth century.

  • Laura
    2019-06-02 01:10

    Free download available at Project Gutenberg.Opening lines:AT one o'clock in the afternoon of a spring day in the year 1868, a young man of twenty-seven, carelessly and shabbily dressed, was toiling up the back staircase of a five-storied house on Officers Street in St. Petersburg. Noisily shuffling his down-trodden goloshes and slowly swinging his heavy, clumsy figure, the man at last reached the very top flight and stopped before a half-open door hanging off its hinges. He did not ring the bell, but gave a loud sigh and walked straight into a small, dark passage.4* On the Eve4* Fathers and Sons3* Spring Torrents2* A Lear of the Steppes4* Virgin SoilTR A House of GentlefolkTR First LoveTR The Diary of a Superfluous Man and Other StoriesTR Sketches from a Hunter's AlbumTR A Tour in the Forest

  • Hrrostami
    2019-05-26 08:23

    ادبیات روسیه خیلی مورد علاقه من نیست، ولی داستان خاک بکر و نثر روان و پایان غافلگیر کننده آن را دوست داشتم.

  • Joseph Pinchback
    2019-06-15 06:01

    If I had to come up with a slogan for Ivan Turgenev, it would be, "Turgenev - For God's sake, would somebody read something besides Fathers and Sons?" Granted, Fathers and Sons is his best novel, but he's got some other good stuff. I dare you to read First Love and tell me that it isn't moving. It's a short story, so quit complaining and just go read it. As for this novel, Virgin Soil, those of you who have read Fathers and Sons will find a lot of similar things. It's another book about Nihilism, the protagonist is another young Nihilist who rages against the establishment, and both novels end the same way. But those of you who give Virgin Soil a chance will also find a compelling novel that gives a fascinating view into the social and generational gaps that existed in late 19th century Russia.

  • B. Morrison
    2019-05-30 04:04

    Virgin Soil, Turgenev’s last novel, is about the Populist movement in Russia in the late 1860s and 1870s, a hundred years before my experiences in the social movements of the 1960s and 1970s. Turgenev's idealistic revolutionaries want to awaken the slumbering people and help them take back their country from the ruling classes. The story focuses on Alexey Nezhdanov, a young student in St. Petersburg, who wants to devote his life to the cause, condemning as elitist the poetry he cannot keep himself from writing.So much of this is familiar! Nezhdanov and his friends go among the poor, hoping to blend in and teach them to expect more, with the result you would expect. There’s paranoia about possible infiltrators and dissension over which leaders to trust. Some advocate a violent uprising while others work within their own small sphere to create change. Some show common sense while others seem more concerned with self-aggrandizement. There are witting and unwitting betrayals. Nezhdanov falls in love with a young woman from a good family who shares his ideals and commitment to the cause.The most interesting characters to me were two of his friends, minor characters whose loyalty is tested, and the aristocrat for whom he works, whose charming duplicity drives much of the action. This dramatic story helps me understand what happened to the movements of my youth, the disillusion and disarray they fell into.

  • Bettie☯
    2019-06-14 00:58

    Brazilliant found the link:"To turn over virgin soil it is necessary to use a deep plough going well into the earth, not a surface ploughgliding lightly over the top."—From a Farmer's Notebook.Opening: AT one o'clock in the afternoon of a spring day in the year 1868, a young man of twenty-seven, carelessly and shabbily dressed, was toiling up the back staircase of a five-storied house on Officers Street in St. Petersburg. Noisily shuffling his down-trodden goloshes and slowly swinging his heavy, clumsy figure, the man at last reached the very top flight and stopped before a half-open door hanging off its hinges. He did not ring the bell, but gave a loud sigh and walked straight into a small, dark passage.

  • GaiaP
    2019-05-20 02:23

    Si potrebbe dire che Turgenev ha avuto due colpi di genio con i quali si è guadagnato l'eternità letteraria: ha inventato il termine "nichilista" e ha creato il carattere dell'"uomo superfluo", padre putativo di tutti gli inetti di novecentesca memoria. "Terra Vergine", ultimo romanzo scritto dall'autore poco prima di morire, rappresenta il punto di convergenza di queste due geniali trovate e, benché forse appena inferiore a "Padri e Figli", è un riuscitissimo romanzo. Consigliato a tutti i russofiliaci-slavomaniaci in circolazione.

  • Monty Milne
    2019-06-06 04:55

    I was very struck by the parallels with Dostoyevsky's "Devils", which I also read recently. I think I prefer Turgenev (even though this is not his best). Turgenev is not as unrelievedly gloomy as Dostoyevsky - there is humour and affection here, and of course Turgenev's extraordinary ability to draw us into the sight and taste and feel of his narrative. Opening his book is like imbibing a shaman's potion and flitting, shape-changed, back in time to smell the earth of mother Russia. Not that this is all light hearted froth: there is biting satire, and tragedy, and sorrow. Turgenev - like Dostoyevsky - seems remarkably prescient about the slow-motion train-crash that is coming...Revolution, Civil War, and Red Terror look horribly unavoidable even half a century before they happened. If the political ideals of the central characters are doomed to failure, they do at least eventually seem to realise that they have been barking up the wrong tree. Which of us make the right choices in life anyway? Who has not become disillusioned? And yet - Turgenev seems to say - not everything is lost, and misplaced ideological convictions don't matter so much, if kindness and love remain.

  • Richard
    2019-06-16 01:56

    This book about "social justice warriors" of 1860s Russia was a bit of a disappointment, especially compared to Sportsman's Sketches and The Home of the Gentry, both of which I loved. It's almost like Turgenev felt some sort of moral obligation to write a political book in the manner of Dostoevsky's Demons, but came up with a book that seems to fail to approach anything of that level. He is best in the earlier books describing nature and quirky Russians, and while there is some of that here, he really fails in his psychological portrayals of socially conscious upper class people. The book seems weak from a literary or artistic perspective. Even Gorky's crazy book is better.I guess I can recommend to the intellectually curious and those looking to do the complete Turgenev. The Constance Garnett translation of the edition above seemed lifeless and had no helpful footnotes, and there were a few French phrases which did not survive the Google translator. The book seems very unrealistic but apparently it was in fact true to life, and reading about some of the socialists at the time in fact seemed to verify it - there were people all over Europe wandering through the countryside handling out propaganda. A different world.

  • Jen
    2019-05-21 08:16

    Virin Soil is both a love story and social commentary about Russia in the 1800s. Protagonist Nejdanov is a young man trapped between two worlds. He is the illegitimate son of an aristocrat and member of Populism movement. Nejdanov���s struggles parallel the struggles of his county. He is inducted into the movement as a result of his background but he struggles with this identity throughout the book. I enjoyed this book. I felt great empathy toward Nejdanov and thought that Turgenev was able to present a compassionate picture of a man struggling with his identity and purpose. Turgenev���s frustration with the socio-political climate in Russia at the time is evident throughout the book. He criticizes both the naivet�� of the young revolutionaries and the greed and corruption of the aristocrats. The descriptions of both the people and the countryside are rich and beautiful. Overall a very enjoyable book, written in a style that blends humor, compassion, & social commentary.

  • Jason
    2019-06-01 00:54

    Stately and measured when opposed to Dostoevsky's gargantuan, fervid DEMONS, w/ which is has some obvious similarities and which preceded it by a mere five years, I feel driven to contend that though unquestionably the lesser masterpiece, VIRGIN SOIL is probably by any measure the more retrospectively prescient. If Doestoevsky's vision would seem to portend hell and conflagration, Turgenev's seems to soberly foresee actual revolution. The organizers, then, in opposition to the nihilists. VIRGIN SOIL sort of begins as a not particularly funny comedy and end as not-entirely-all-that-tragic tragedy. I in no way mean any of this derisively. Turgenev is not one for unseemly overreach (I have already called him a sober writer). The comedy is one about youth and naïveté, and so is the tragedy. What it comes down to is this: the spiritual progeny of Hamlet do not good little revolutionaries make. Like many lessons, someone here (and is was pretty clear from the beginning who that was gonna be) is gonna learn it the hard way. When we speak about these kids who know so little about the ways of the world, most of whose knowledge comes from books (and tracts), we speak of zeal in the face of illusions not yet lost. But wait a minute. We of course must remember that history requires us to read VIRGIN SOIL in lieu of what actually came to pass for the Russian people. Indeed, though zeal and naïveté seem to shroud the activities of Turgenev's young radicals, the novel was published forty years before, you know, the actual Russian Revolution. Part of the lesson of the book, or maybe simply what it clinically establishes, seems again and again credited by historical developments. It is the young who revolutionize, who radicalize; the old calcify or are assimilated into the corridors of power. We see it played out generation after generation. If the Baby Boomers set the world on fire in the 19060s, they have also grown to oversee the ossification of liberal democracy, panglobal exploitation, and the rise of fascistic populisms. So: if zeal is generally born more or less of naïveté, and born ever and always in the young, bless it tenfold for all that. Just, you know, try not to be totally hoodwinked.

  • Oliver Matheson
    2019-06-18 01:24

    An amazing novel that’s equal parts hilarious, touching, and thought provoking. I don’t think I will ever understand how these Russian writers understand people so well that all of their characters might as well be walking around today, it’s incredible

  • Foad Ansari
    2019-06-17 00:09

    هیچ کدام از این مردم نمیدانند که رستگاری واقعی ما در دست سالومین هاست . سالومین های ساده، کسل کننده ولی عاقل

  • Sashinka
    2019-06-14 04:18

    I really enjoyed this although I was quite surprised to find that it was actually published and got through the censors in 1871. I was impressed with just how free the writing was on the subject of uprisings and the attempt to bring about a revolution, albeit a doomed one. Put in a historical context, Russia has a history of censorship and those who wished to enlighten others as to the plight of the ordinary peasant or the corruption of the aristocracy had to do so in fairly veiled terms. Dostoevsky was sent to Siberia for being part of a political group (the Petrashevsky circle) only 20 years prior to the publication of Virgin Soil and works of literature were still being scrutinised and censored at the time this was written. A month after the publication of this novel, there was a trial for members of the Populist movement - which certainly gave Turgenev's critics something to attack as he seemed to know an awful lot about it...Back to the novel. This covers so much and is incredibly dense in subject matter, essentially portraying all strands of society and throwing in love, the importance of belief (to the self as well as to a cause or to religion), sacrifice, honesty, truth and doubt. And yet, it is for the most part light-hearted and flows quickly. I felt this characterised the problems faced by would-be revolutionaries and showed just how quickly doubt can creep in. Nezhdanov starts the novel as the most promising character, disillusioned with Petersburg but true to the nihilist cause. He meets two intriguing women, both of whom captivate him (or at least try to) with different ways. It becomes a love story and Nezhdanov begins to feel torn. His identity struggles become a focus on the book with ideas of belief, sacrifice, the plight of Russia and the Russian peasantry and whether the Russian peasantry actually want to do anything about it all becoming themes. A wide-sweeping, satirical novel that I really enjoyed. I haven't taken any quotes as it was a library book but I definitely feel this belongs on the list of 1001 Books You Must Read Before You Die and would happily read it again (once I've recapped on my history of the 1870s!).

  • Daniel Polansky
    2019-06-17 07:04

    A story about revolutionaries in the Russian provinces circa 1880, I guess.There is, of course, an odd sort of formalism which is characteristic of this era of novel, in particular a tendency for the author to describe, basically without obfuscation, the intimate personality of their characters. I have previously lamented this quality in Austen, and though I think she is particularly brutal, it has to be said that it seems fairly ubiquitous – thinking on it now Hugo was pretty bad with that also, as was Zola. Or, maybe I'm wrong, I never really took an English lit class. In any event, it is striking that, while Turganev certainly illuminates its characters to a degree which is generally not seen in modern novels, or at least not good modern novels, there still is room for surprising scenes of pathos – witness, for instance, the forced confession of Paklev (sp) by Simoygin (also sp), which is really fabulously well executed, and feels horrible and sad even though you know exactly what's going to happen. Finally, from being quite beautifully written – its descriptions of the Russian countryside inspire a visit – Turganev, unlike some of his compatriot geniuses, has a light touch in his descriptions of human character and conduct, more an observer, it seemed to me, than a didact. It won't displace War and Peace for me any time soon, but then again, that's kind of a silly bar.

  • Mark
    2019-05-21 03:04

    Conventionally plotted but politically savvy, Ivan Turgenev's last novel follows a group of would-be radicals in late Imperial Russia. The class tensions that would culminate in the catastrophic revolutions of 1917 are tangible here, but premature. The young rebels are zealous, even if they can't adequately explain the cause they are fighting for, much less convince the peasantry that it is worthwhile. Delays lead to frustration, and any hint of solidarity is effaced by their lack of skill. For their part, the aristocracy is also described as exceedingly silly, and the only character who attains dignity in the story is Solomin, a level-headed factory supervisor of a type that chillingly prefigures Soviet models of protagonists.The Constance Garnett translation is a smooth read, and while not exactly riveting, provides an interesting prophetic angle, as well as a vivid eye for natural detail that Dostoevsky and Tolstoy lack. Those two are better from dramatic and character perspectives, and Gogol is much funnier, but Turgenev compares favorably to them.

  • Sina
    2019-06-20 04:14

    جوانان انقلابی عجول و خواستار تحولات یک شبه و تا حدودی هم بی هدفقضیه انقلاب طوری هم عنوان میگردد که صرفن ساخته و پرداخته ذهن یک سری جوان متمدن است و آن ها هستند که خواستار احیا حق قشر ضعیف جامعه می باشند در حالی که قشر ضعیف که بیشتر منظور دهقانان هستند یا چیزی در سر ندارند که حرف آنان رو بفهمند یا اینکه شاید از اوضاع راضی هستند و همین دهقانان یکی از شخصیت های انقلابی را دستگیر می کنند و تحویل حکومت می دهند. البته در بین شخصیت ها تنها یک نفر وجود دارد که بیگدار به آب نمیزند و آهسته و پیوسته مسیر انقلاب و یا شاید تنها اصلاح جامعه را با اقدامات اصلاحی خود طی مینماید.‏تورگنیف در این داستان به نوعی انقلاب را بیهوده تلقی می کند و اقدامات اصلاحی را مناسب تر می داند و شاید هم به کل با انقلابیون مخالف باشد.‏پ.ن: تقریبن 30 سال پس از نگارش این کتاب انقلاب به وقوع پیوست.‏

  • Philip Lane
    2019-06-20 06:09

    I found this quite an easy read as it has a lot of dialogue in it and not too many characters to confuse me with the Russian names. I found the main characters of Marianne and Nejdanov very sympathetic and so I was rooting for them as times got more difficult. I found it quite revealing that the undercurrent of revolution was present in Russia for many decades before it actually broke out. I was particularly taken with the element of plans going awry as we continue to live in a world of conspiracy theories it was refreshing to see how Paklin got it so wrong.

  • Moien Aghcheli
    2019-06-16 00:01

    به نظرم بعد از پدارن و پسران بهترین اثر تورگینف بود. یک شروع ارام و عطفی بسیار قوی با پایانی غم انگیز.اون موقع که نژدانف با رفت به شهر ت و یا قبلتر از اون دعوای مارینا با زن دایی اش نقاط عطف داستان بودند. شخصت پردازی این کتاب خیلی خوب بود. عناصر کتاب همه در ارتباط با هم دیگه بودند. و یه داستان رئالیسیتی از یک انقلاب نا موفق را به تصویر می کشیدند.

  • Jeff
    2019-06-10 06:11

    I don’t know what was in the water around the time these guys in Russia were writing. Turgenov has such clarity. This book helped me see I had to move beyond my phase of focusing on all the things that weren’t working for me in this society.

  • Gemma Williams
    2019-06-19 07:03

    Turgeneyev's novel about a group of rather clueless revolutionaries trying to propagandise the Russian peasantry, who just get them drunk and beat them up. The characters are idealistic, noble and riven by self doubt. Very readable.

  • Vishal Misra
    2019-05-22 08:17

    "Virgin Soil", Turgenev's final novel, deals with the populist movement of Russia, though it's greatest protagonist is probably the Russian countryside itself. Turgenev's young revolutionaries (the protagonist, Alexey Nezhdandov, is 27) are idealistic and imbued with a sense of duty and purpose to awaken Russia's slumbering masses. Nezhdanov himself is the bastard child of an aristocrat, and it is the resentment he feels at being locked out of the aristocratic circles that animates his desire for revolution. The story itself truly starts when we learn of Nezhdanov's trip to the theatre. Here his animated views regarding the democratisation of Russia catch the attention of Sipyagin, an aristocrat who seems to profess sympathy for Nezhdanov's views. Sipyagin employs Nezhdanov as a tutor for his son, and it is at his country manor that the plot unfolds.Nezhdanov is ably supported by a cast of fellow revolutionaries, including Sipyagin's brother-in-law, Markelov. Paklin, a lame man who is mistrusted by his fellows because of his propensity to joke. Mashurina, who is hopelessly in love with Nezhdanov. Solomin, a factory manager, who is perhaps the most sensible of all the dreamers. Marianna, the niece of Sipyagin, with whom Nezhdanov falls in love. Each character has their own flaws, and it is the desire of Marianna and Nezhdanov to become "simplified", to connect with the common peasants and to overthrow the iron fist of aristocratic exploitation of the masses.Scandalised by Nezhdanov's views, and his budding romance with Marianna, he is ejected from Sipyagin's house. Thus Marianna and Alexy flee to help to foment revolution. However, Nezhdanov is seemingly unable to connect with those he wishes to engage. Nezhdanov's true loves lie in poetry and theatre, which he dismisses as elitist. The focal point of the revolutionaries lies in the seemingly irreconcilable differences in their internal characters. Nezhdanov describes himself as two men at once, one who believes in his cause, and one who cannot shake his association with the gentility and nobility. He is plagued by self-doubt and jealousy of the calm and collected Solomin.Solomin, who never truly defines himself is the only character who preaches caution and change within the small spheres where he can exercise influence. Whereas the fiery Markelov preaches an immediate and more violent form of revolution. Thus it is that Markelov seeks to spark revolution in haste, and the immediate repression of the State has disastrous consequences for all.Turgenev treats his revolutionaries with sympathy, and demonstrates an understanding for what motivates them. This imbuement of a sympathetic humanity to his cast of heroes is what truly sets this book aside, and it is the tragedy of its failure, which is predicted and assured by the circumstances that the characters find themselves in that lends the text the air of the prophetic. The inner contradictions of the revolutionaries themselves highlights the inner contradictions of their movement, and it is for this reason that Solomin comes away unscathed. However, it is also the haste of the ore firebrand that goes on to assure that they become victims of their circumstances, falling into the cracks of the final words of the novel, uttered by Paklin: "anonymous Russia".

  • Yogy TheBear
    2019-05-22 07:07

    It was a good description of the populist movement in Russia. The populist movement can be considered the spiritual father of latter revolutionary socialist movements in Russia.My observations will be of a more political aspect then literary. The first comparation I can think about of the populist movement in Russia is the abolitionist one in the anglo saxon world. And from here starts my questions and dilemmas. Why was the russian version inherently socialist and anti capitalist .Why did they try to radicaly change the world (all social relations) and not just to alleviate and correct some social injustices like the abolitionists. ?The abolitionists were religious and sought to get rid of some specific hypocrisy of society in relation with faith; the russians were nihilists and rejected almost all the current values. Why were they fixated with a romantic view of collectivism, they should just have helped the younger peasents to read and write, give them some legal and tehnical consuel and let them get out of their state alone.If they would have acted and thought more like the abolitionists and the reformers and even radicals of the anglo saxon world,then despite the unique context of the russian autocracy they would have made more peacefll progres and would have won a large part of the young state aparatus to their side without totally antagonizing the old ones.

  • Dree
    2019-06-18 03:59

    I was expecting an upper-class-activists-go-to-live-with-the-peasants sort of book.This is not that at all.The upper class activists are here. Are they wealthy? Not seemingly, but they also seem to have money. They are not peasants. This book is more of a satire of these sort of people--from Petersburg, they want to improve the lives of peasants. And they run around passing out pamphlets and generally being ignored by the peasants they are "helping". Or they are being turned in by those peasants. The peasants can't read, and they are busy working or drinking. There is even a noble landowner doing the same thing--who is arrested.Who is sympathetic to this cause but actually doing something? The factory manager. He has succeeded in starting a school at the factory, and has had some adults taught to read. He believes in small steps that are doable. So this books is a satire, but it is also a romance. And not a great romance--not that I am a fan of romance. It is here that this book is sad and depressing--the missed and nearly missed pairings are depressing. So--it's a fine book with a touch too much romance. Just not what I was expecting and hoping for. I'd prefer less nobles and more peasants.

  • Harajyuku
    2019-06-02 06:19

    3.5. Actually a very good, somewhat old-fashioned novel, in the sense that novels are not much made this way anymore, and considering how long it took me to muster up interest in continuing to read it. I think the reason is that the characters are first-rate, sublime creations, but the plot is slow. Highlights: Fimushka and Fomushka, Nedzhanov's book of verses, Paklin's cigar. Paklin in particular was a great character.

  • Peter Pinkney
    2019-05-27 03:55

    Ah idealism, but so often crushed by reality.....A story of upper class Russians wanting to live as workers, and the difficulties that brings. T'was ever this.As always, with Turgenev, beautifully told, and the prose flows poetically.Paklin, Kallomeitsev, and the married couple, Fomushka and Fimushka, are the equal to any tragic/comic characters that Dickens created.A wonderful book.

  • Sohail
    2019-05-23 02:23

    Not as good as Turgenif's other works of fiction, it seems like an antithesis to What is to Be Done. I don't like What is to Be Done, but this book, despite its different outlook, follows the same extremist attitude and therefore, is too strong for me. Just like Vodka.And by the way, it is Turgenif, not Turgenev.

  • Danah
    2019-06-05 03:03

    A dollar-store "Demons" for people who think Dostoyevsky's too "negative".

  • Amina Sadr
    2019-05-23 03:12

    Read the Russian original.Five stars. As it was in case of "Smoke", i find this supposedly "weak", according to critics, novel better and more valuable than the higher rated works of Turgenev. This, once again, has discouraged me from reading critique before getting familiar with the novel itself, and sometimes even after.The common theme present in both "Virgin soil" and "Smoke" is the struggle of a person who doesn't fit neither black(or red in this case), nor white. His inner organization is more advanced than the ideologies of various movements, he is a person with no affiliation, even though he sincerely believes in values which the progressive youth of his time purports to fight for. He sees the gaps, fallacies, imperfections; strategies which are doomed to fail, objects of "liberation" which want not and are not ready for this liberation, shallow-minded activists, shady and doubtful leadership. His sense of justice forces him to chose socialists over aristocrats, but eventually he has to admit that he doesn't believe in the movement which has already become the core of his life, a part if his identity and even the reason why Marianna has developed a deep sympathy for him. He found himself in the grave long before he shot himself, and this is the reason he wrote the poem about death. The character of Paklin, a man who is rather kind but has a hard time holding his tongue, seems to have been added to speak the unspoken and to state what might have been understated in case the reader didn't catch Turgenev's subtle messages. His final monologue, and especially the questions he asks Mashurina regarding whose orders she follows perfectly concluded and summed up the political message of the novel.I also truly enjoyed the complexity of characters drawn, with their various, at times conflicting features and under-tones.